消息學校入駐客服中心微信我們網站導航

手機版登錄注冊
互動社區語言托福如果應對托福歷史類文章?

如果應對托福歷史類文章?

時間:2022/1/4 12:14:13

 “生物+歷史+地質地理”題材的文章構成了我們托福閱讀考試中雷打不動的的三個板塊。歷史類文章的組織結構相較于其他題材的文章而言可以說是比較豐富的,大體可以分為以下四類:

  (一)按時間順序或歷史事物發展的自然順序來進行記敘

  談到歷史類文章,那么自然是與“時間”這個概念脫不開干系的。類的歷史文章就是如此,它并非按托福文章常見的總分或總分總結構進行布局,而是按歷史事物的產生,發展,成熟,高潮甚至衰落等各個階段向前推進。這類文章看似行文松散,實則是形散而神不散,全文以“時間順序”這個縱軸貫穿始終。

  例如TPO29-01這篇文章:“ The History of Waterpower 水利的歷史”,這篇文章共七段,開篇首段并沒像大多數文章那樣采用Introduction引入段,而是直截了當,開門見山地指出至少在公元世紀,“水輪water wheel”就已作為較早的水利應用裝置出現并投入使用,即“a waterwheel that raised water for irrigation in attached jars. The device appears to have evolved no later than the fifth century B.C., perhaps independently in different regions of the Middle and Far East”。

  接下來的六段,作者根據時間的推移,按順序描述了水利應用技術及裝置發展演進的過程,包括:較早的水車在公元前1,2世紀在不同的地域先后產生了,“The earliest waterpower mills were probably vertical-axis mills for grinding corn, known as Norse or Greek mills, which seem to have appeared during the first or second century B.C. in the Middle East and a few centuries later in Scandinavia;

  水車應用并不僅僅局限于農業,而是在不同產業均有使用,“Raising water and grinding corn were by no means the only uses of the waterpower mill, and during the following centuries, the applications of waterpower kept pace with the developing technologies of mining, iron working, paper making, and the wool and cotton industries”;

  進入蒸汽時代后水利應用前景一度暗淡,然而在一個世紀后又再現了繁榮,“The coal-fired steam engine was taking over, and the waterwheel was fast becoming obsolete. However, a century later the picture was completely different”;

  隨后1832年法拉利發現電磁感應現象,電動渦輪機相繼成功問世,“In 1832, the year of Michael Faraday’s discovery that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field, a young French engineer patented a new and more efficient waterwheel and his device was the first successful water turbine”;

  文章較后描述了1881年世界個公用事業發電廠使用的正是水利發電,之后則因河水水量波動變化不可靠很快被蒸汽動力所取代,“In 1881, the Godalming power station in Surrey, England, on the banks of the Wey River, created the world’s first public electricity supply. The power source of this most modern technology was a traditional waterwheel. Unfortunately this early plant experienced the problem common to many forms of renewable energy: the flow in the Wey River was unreliable, and the waterwheel was soon replaced by a steam engine.”

  不難看出,類歷史文章的結構是按時間的縱軸順序來組織的,那么文章摘要題通常會要求考生能在描寫的各歷史階段中分辨與挑選出有劃時代意義的,或期間內產生了變化發展的那幾個時間階段。我們將其做概括總結后,一般就是六選三所要求的選項。但這種文章因為并非總分或總分總結構,所以容易偏重對細節的描寫和考察,六選三題從正面直接選有時顯得不容易分辨,這時需配合從反面排除錯誤選項的技巧來做。

  (二)按歷史人物或歷史事件所帶來的結果或影響進行描述

  人類波瀾壯闊的歷史畫卷往往是在那些燦若星辰的歷史人物引領下描繪而就的,或是由那些能夠產生重大沖擊或具劃時代意義的歷史事件像珍珠般貫穿而成的。這些偉大的人物和歷史事件必然會給人類歷史留下重大而深遠的影響或和結果,第二類歷史文章就是按照這些影響和結果來進行分類描述的。

  例如TPO43-01 The Empire of Alexander The Great亞歷山大大帝的帝國,這篇文章是非常典型的總分結構。全文共6段,首段開篇明義總述了亞歷山大大帝通過東征建立了一個的遼闊帝國,隨后施行了一系列改革,給其帝國帶來了幾項影響深遠的后果“consequences”,對應首段較后一句總結句“Alexander’s actions had several important consequences for the region occupied by the empire.”

  接下來就開始“分“項描述,第2段說明了第1個影響即the first consequence: 希臘文明在中東區域得以廣泛擴張傳播,對應第2段首句中心句”The first of these was the expansion of Greek civilization throughout the Middle East”;

  第3段和第4段記敘了第2個影響the second consequence,即傳統希臘城邦政體的終結,以及城邦所代表的一切,對應第三段的首句“Second, this internationalism spelled the end of the classical Greek city-state - the unit of government in ancient Greece - and everything it stood for;同時人才發展模式發生轉變,原先為人所重視的“通才”在國際化發展之后不再適用,逐漸被職業化的專才所取代,對應第四段首句: “This implied that the city-state was based on the idea that citizens were not specialists but had multiple interests and talents — each a so-called jack-of-all-trades who could engage in many areas of life and politics ”;

  第5段和第6段描述了第3個影響the third consequence: 希臘的哲學理念與中東世界的宗教思想互相融合,形成了新的文明并擴散到了全世界,對應著第5段首句“Third, Greek philosophy was opened up to the philosophy and religion of the East.”以及第6段的較后一句總結句“The combination of the religious instinct of Asia with the philosophic spirit of Greece spread across the world in the era after Alexander’s death, blending the culture of the Middle East with the culture of Greece”。

  這種類型的歷史文章其文章摘要題一般比較好預判,即要求考生能夠概括出文章主要描述的那幾個重要的 consequences 或 effects,如果恰好是三個的話,那么一一對應選出來就好,如果consequences或effects多于三個,那么出題者通常會把其中幾個進行兩兩合并,匯總成一個句子;或者是在諸個后果或影響中選擇出三個較重要的,設置成三個句子作為正確答案。

  因此這種文章的六選三題,通常從正面來直接選反而比較好選。

  比如The Empire of Alexander The Great亞歷山大大帝的帝國這篇文章,它的六選三正確答案分別是:

  B. Increasing urbanization and the elimination of trade barriers meant the end of the Greek city-state and the creation of a much larger political and economic body;

  D. The expansion of Alexander’s empire led to the diffusion of Greek language, literature, and thought throughout the Middle East;

  E. The empire saw the birth of a new culture, merging Greek philosophical ideas with the religious spirit of Asia.

  正好分別對應原文所描述的第2,第1和第3個consequence.

  (三)按照歷史現象或歷史事件背后成因探討進行敘述的文章

  第三類歷史文章與上述的第二類在結構上非常相似,均是典型的總分或總分總結構。只不過將探究歷史事件的結果和影響換成了探究歷史事件背后形成的原因。

  例如TPO49-03 The Background of Industrial Revolution 工業革命的背景這篇文章,文章共6段,第1段先總述工業革命由于經濟方面的積淀是在歐洲發端的,“The Industrial Revolution had several roots, one of which was a commercial revolution that, beginning as far back as the sixteenth century, accompanied Europe’s expansion overseas.”然后將話題自然而然地引向了英國,說明工業革命較初在英國興起絕非偶然,在歐洲取得優勢的基礎上,英國的經濟體制更加強勁穩固,“Europe’s economic institutions, particularly those in England, were strong, had wealth available for new investment, and seemed almost to be waiting for some technological breakthrough that would expand their profit-making potential even more.”

  從第2段起,文章每一段都闡述了一個或幾個英國特有的,而其他歐洲列強所不具備的獨特優勢,其中包括:對外而言,英國處在國際貿易的十字交叉口,對內而言,英國擁有縱橫交錯,運輸成本低廉便利的水道“One was its geographic location at the crossroads of international trade. Internally, Britain was endowed with easily navigable natural waterway, which helped its trade and communication with the world…… it enjoyed a boom in canal building, which helped make its domestic market more accessible”;

  英國還富含某些歐洲所稀缺的煤礦資源,給工廠提供了能源供給且刺激了工業和消費產品的激增,“Great Britain also had rich deposits of coal that fed the factories springing up in industrial and consumer goods”;大量來自鄉村的高流動性人口為產業工人提供了充足的來源,“Another advantage was Britain’s large population of rural, agricultural wage earners, as well as cottage workers, who had the potential of being more mobile than peasants of some other countries”;

  除此之外,英國還擁有更加發達的銀行和信用系統以及大量企業家和發明家等等,“Great Britain’s better-developed banking and credit system also helped speed the industrial progress, as did the fact that it was the home of an impressive array of entrepreneurs and inventors”.

  那么根據上文的分析,類似的,我們對此類文章的摘要題也可以提前進行預判,即六選概率會要求我們考生選出文章主要分析的三個或多個成因及因素,這時可能有兩種情況:種是恰好成因有三,那么一一選出即可;第二種是成因大于三個,那么需從諸多成因中選出較重要的那三個,當然更常見的情況是出題者會將其中幾個兩兩合并在一起,較終匯總成為三個句子即是要挑出的三個正確答案。

  例如 The Background of Industrial Revolution 工業革命的背景這篇文章的六選三正確答案分別是:

  A. The expansion of international trade from the sixteenth century on greatly stabilized the European economy;

  B. Intense consumer activity and sound government institutions enabled mechanized labor to develop in Great Britain

  E. British entrepreneurs invented a new system of banking that led to rapid economic growth.

  可以看出,六選三的正確選項就是將文中描述的諸多英國優勢因素合并糅雜在了一起。

  (四)把歷地位等同或相似的歷史事物對比著來記述

  第四種歷史文章通常會把兩個地位相似的歷史事物拿來比照,從多個維度,多個特性出發進行詳細的類比描述,但文章在兩個描述的客體上會有所偏重,即對比的目的實際上是為了給讀者更加生動透徹地說明其中一個事物的本質,特性等。

  例如TPO07-02 Ancient Rome and Greece 古代羅馬與希臘這篇文章,全文在政治體制,歷史發展,文化藝術等多個方面不斷地將古羅馬與古希臘這兩個歐洲文明的”雙子星”進行類比,包括,“ Whereas Greece had grown from scores of scattered cities, Rome grew from one single organism. ” 希臘是從二十多個分散的城邦發展而來,然而羅馬則是從單一的有機體成長起來; “While the Greek world had expanded along the Mediterranean seas lanes, the Roman world was assembled by territorial conquest ”希臘是沿著地中海的海上航線擴張的,而羅馬帝國則是通過陸地領土的占領而壯大 ;“The key to the Greek world lay in its high-powered ships; the key to Roman power lay in its marching legions. “理解希臘世界的關鍵是其強大的船隊,而理解羅馬的關鍵則是他們行進的軍團;“The Greeks were wedded to the sea; the Romans, to the land. The Greek was a sailor at heart; the Roman, a landsman.”希臘人緊緊守著海洋,本質上是天生的水手,而羅馬人死守著陸地,本質上路上的強兵。

  但需注意的是,全文雖不斷在對二者進行對比,但這種對比是有其偏重性的,即作者想用與希臘種種相異之處來更深刻,更生動地突顯羅馬文明的特點,使讀者能對這種敘述方式感到記憶深刻且耳目一新。

  那么這種文章的六選三題會偏重于讓考生選擇羅馬與希臘較不同的三個方面,或者此類對比類文章的考察方法也可能會將較后一題設置成七選五,即表格填寫題,用以考察考生理解,記憶并正確將兩種不同事物的特點進行分類的能力。

新人有禮入門、實操、考證、晉升資料全部免費贈送
姓名: 聯系方式: 資料: 立即領取

品牌:近5000家優秀培訓機構行業:覆蓋十大類200個行業學員:為學員提供求學服務

找學:選擇離您較近的學校選課:對比選擇適合您的課程咨詢:7×24小服務

課程:精選優質課程保障:人工實名認證評價:學員真實評價

省時:提交求學需求;學校主動聯系你;省心:學校全正規辦學;誠信經營!省錢:享受滿意的課程單價;

關于我們 招生信息 新聞中心 網站地圖 互動問答 資訊

版權所有:求學指南(www.910sun.com) 備案號: 豫ICP備12008957號-9 更新時間:2022-01-26

欧美人与禽交ZoZO,《风花雪月》香港在线观看,与你刚刚好1v1余袅袅,女人与公拘交的视频A片免费看